The following is a list of occupations of which some may not have been in use for many years.
These are useful to genealogists since surnames usually originated from someone's occupation.
They also are useful to historians in general. The list is by no means complete.
I thank all of those who have contributed to the list.
If you know of any not included in this list or have corrections, please let me know.


Email to add more occupations

ACATER - supplied food provisions, e.g. a ships chandler
ACCIPITRARY - falconer
ACCOMPTANT - accountant

ACCOUCHEUR - assisted women in childbirth
ACCOUTREMENT MAKER - supplier of military accessories
ACREMAN - ploughman, an oxherder
ACTUARY - kept public accounts of business
ADMINISTRATOR - directed the affairs of another
AERONAUT - balloonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls
AFFEEROR - official in the manorial courts whocollected taxes and other monies
ALABASTERER - one who worked with alabaster, in the making of tombs or statues

ALCHEMIST - a medieval chemist who claimed they could turn metal into gold

ALDERMAN - a councillor in a senior position with a town council

ALECONNER - a person who tested the quality of beers in establishments

ALE DRAPER - a purveyer of ale

ALE TASTER - an aletaster who was appointed by the Lord of the Manor and tested the quality of the beer

ALE TUNNER - employed to fill casks of beer

ALEWIFE - woman who keeps an alehouse or tavern. A license was not needed for this as was the case with a public house, inn or tavern

ALL SPICE - name for a grocer
ALMONER - a man who gave out alms to the needy on behalf of the parish
ALMSMAN -one who received alms from the parish or some other benefactor
ALNAGER - an official who examined the quality of woollen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval
AMANUENSIS - secretary or stenographer
AMBER CUTTER - cut ambergris
AMBER & JET CUTTER - cut and polished amber for jewellery
AMEN MAN - parish clerk
ANCHOR SMITH - a maker of ships / boats anchors
ANCHORESS - female hermit or religious recluse who was sometimes walled up in a building with only a small window to obtain gifts of food and give blessings
ANCHORITE - male hermit or religious reclus, as above was walled in.
ANGLE IRON SMITH - made iron in flat bars bent at right angles lengthways thus giving strength
ANKLE BEATER - young person who helped the drover drive cattle to a market
ANVIL SMITH - made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
APIARIAN - a person who kept bees for their honey and wax
APOTHECARY - a person who prepared and sold medicines.
APPRENTICE - was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade. An apprentice normally finished his tenure at the age of 21
APRONEER - term used in London for a shopkeeper from their custom of wearing aprons or pinnies
ARCHIL MAKER - made a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
ARKWRIGHT - skilled craftsman who produced wooden chests
ARMIGER - a squire who carried the armour for a medieval knight
ARMOURER - made suits of armour or armour plating for forms of transport or vehicles used in wars
ARTIFICER - a very highly skilled craftsman
ASHMAN - dustman. As was the custom when people had coal fires, what did they do with the cold ashes in the morning ?
ASSAYER - determined the proportions of metal in ore

ASSAY MASTER - a man responsible for putting the correct amount of precious metals in coins
AUGER MAKER - he made the carpenters augers. An auger being either a drill bit or types of hand tools, normally those for drilling
AVENATOR -a merchant who sold hay and other foodstuffs for livestock
AXEL TURNER - this craftsman made the axels for coaches and wagons
BACK WASHER - employed to clean the wool in the manufacturing of worsted
BADGER - pauper who could only work in a designated area .
BAGMAN - a person who sold goods from town to town
BAILIFF/BAILEY - an appointed person, either by the landowner or town who looked after a stretch of water and upheld the rights of that water
BALER - a person who bales hay or other material into bales ready for use or sale
BALLAST HEAVER - a person who put ballast into the bottoms of ships, this could be stone or metal waste
BALLARD MASTER -was in charge of the loading of such ballast
BALLER - measured set amounts of clay for the potter
BAL MAIDEN - female mine worker who worked above ground
BANDSTER - a farm worker or migrant seasonal worker who bound the sheaves of wheat/corn ready for stacking
BANG BEGGAR - a parish employee who controlled the length of time any stranger stayed in the area
BANKER - dug trenches and ditches allow the land to drain, placing the dug out earth in banks
BANKSMAN - employed in the mines as being in charge of the cages at the pit head and collected the tags of the miners
BARBE / SURGEON - a barber also acted a surgeon and a dentist
BARD - a person who wrote poems or plays
BARGEE - worked on or owned a barge
BARKEEPER - a keeper of a bar or toll where a fee must be paid to pass
BARKER - tanner
BAXTER - baker
BASKETMAN - maker of baskets normally from wicker
BASS DRESSER - dressed fibre
BATMAN - the servant of a officer in the army
BATT MAKER - made the wadding used mattress manufacturing
BATTLEDORE MAKER - made the beaters used on carpets to remove the dust. The game of badminton was sometimes called battledore and shuttlecock
BAYWEAVER - who fine woollen fabric called bay
BEADLE - an employee of the parish who kept order, could also be incharge of a workhouse/poorhouse
BEAD PIERCER - a person who drilled holes in beads used in decoration
BEAMER - winds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom
BEATER - cleaned and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth
BEAVER - a maker of felt used in hat making
BEDMAN - sexton in a church who main job was to dig the graves
BEESKEEPMAKER - a maker of beehives for apiarists
BEETLER - operated a beetling machine that was used in the textile industry for the embossing/texturing of fabrics
BELLFOUNDER- maker of bells by foundering
BELL HANGER - installed bells in churches towers made by the bellfounders
BELLMAN - worked for the post service and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell to announce his collections
BELLOWS MAKER - made the bellows used for organs or smiths fires
BELLY BUILDER - built and installed the workings of pianos
BENDER - a person who cut leather
BESSWARDEN - appointed by the parish to look after its animals usually kept on the common land
BESOM MAKER - maker of brooms. The type that are twigs or similar fastened around a centre pole
BIDDY - female servant
BILLIER - he operated a Billy Roller, a machine to prepare the cotton for spinning
BILL POSTER - put up notices and signs
BINDER - a binder of books
BIRD BOY - a young chap who scared away birds from crops
BLACK TRAY MAKER - made trays by the Jappanning process of laquering
BLACKING MAKER - made polish for shoes
BLACK BORDERER - made black edged stationery for funerals which was common in the Victorian era
BLADESMITH - knife maker or a worker of anything that had a blade
BLAXTER / BLEACHER - bleached cloth or paper in its pulp state
BLOCKCUTTER- made wooden blocks used in the hat making or a person who made and cut the patterns into wooden blocks for cloth printing
BLOCK MAKER - engraved the blocks used in the printin
BLOCK PRINTER - printer who used wooden blocks for printing
BLOODLETTER - a user of leeches for the letting of blood, this was thought to be a cure for many illnesses
BLOOMER - produced iron from ore
BLOWER - glass blower, also a person who ooperates the bellows at a smiths
BLUESTOCKING - female writer, normally of fiction
BOARDING OFFICER - inspected ships before they entered port
BOARDMAN - a man who checked for children who were not attending school, playing truant
BOARDWRIGHT - made tables and chairs
BOATMAN - worked on a boat
BOATSWAIN - a ships officer who has responsibility for the sails and their rigging
BOBBIN CARRIER - worked in spinning sections of a weaving mill
BOBBIN TURNER - made the bobbins used in the weaving mills
BOBBY - a policeman, normally refers to a constable
BODEYS MAKER - made the undergarments for women, normally bodices
BODGER - a woodland craftsman who made the legs and cross pieces of traditional wooden chairs
BOILERMAKER - a maker of boilers that were used in heavy industry
BOILER PLATER - made the metal plates that were used in the boiler making mills/sheds
BOLL - had the responsibility of looking after a power loom
BONDAGER - a woman/girl worker on a farm that was tied to that farm
BONDMAN - bonded/tied to a master craftsan/worker for a period of time, similar to apprenticeships
BONDSMAN - stood as a guarantor or gave a bond as surety for another person. If one faltered on the debt the other by law had to pay
BONE BUTTON TURNER - a maker of buttons from bone
BONE MOULD TURNER -a maker of moulds for the button turner to use
BONE PICKER - a person who toured the streets asking for rags and bones otherwise the rag and bone man
BONESETTER - not always a doctor but one who set broken bones
BOOK GILDER - a person who gilded, decorated, books with gold leaf
BOOKHOLDER - a person behind the scenes in a theatre who prompted actors who forgot their lines
BOOK KEEPER - looked after the accounts for businesses
BOOTBINDER - a person who used a machine that made boots, shoes etc
BOOT CLOSER - a person who did the stitching on the uppers of shoes or boots
BOOTHMAN - a grain dealer or merchant
BORLER - someone who made cheap clothes
BOTCHER - a cobbler
BOTTLE BOY - the assistant to a chemist, when all the chemicals were stored in decorative jars. Chemists at this time had large glass vessels in their windows, the more or bigger the vessels the better a chemist they were thought to be.
BOTTOM MAKER - made moulds in the pot making process
BOTTOM KNOCKER - the bottom makers 'lad'
BOTTOMER - worked down a mine and brought the coal or other, to the bottom of the shaft
BOWKER - bleached yarn.
BOWLER - made bowls and dishes
BOWLMAN or WOMAN - a person who dealt in crockery either from a shop or market stall
BOWLMINDER - looked after the large vats where wool was washed before continuing the process of being turned into cloth
BOWER - made bows used in archery
BOZZLER - a 'policeman' employed by the parish
BRABENER - a weaver who normally worked in his own home
BRAIDER - made cord from leather strips
BRAKEMAN - a man who operated the winch at the pit head which brought the cage up and down
BRASILER - a person who dyes material
BRAZIER - a person who normally works with brass
BREWSTER - a person who brews ale
BRIGHTSMITH - a worker with metal, normally tin
BROOM-DASHER - sells and deals in brooms, brushes
BROIDERER - a woman who decorated material, clothing with fancy stitching. A shortened form of the word embroiderer
BROW GIRL - female employed at the pit head or surface of a mine
BROWNSMITH - a worker with the brown metals, copper or brass
BUCKLESMITH - a maker of buckles both plain and fancy but normally of semi precious metals
BUCKRAM MAKER - worked with buckram a stiff material used to stiffen materials
BULLWHACKER - a driver of carts pulled by oxen as opposed to horses
BUNTER - the female version of rag and bone man
BURGESS - similar to a modern concillor, working for a town
BURLER - a quality controller for material and cloth
BUSHEL MAKER - a maker of barrels
BUSKER - an entertainer who uses the streets as their stage and hopefully, is given money by passers by for their efforts
BUTNER - a maker of buttons
BUTTON BURNISHER - a person who polished metal buttons
BYWORKER - a person employed by the mine who worked where needed, worked as a spare i.e. mended roadways, did joinery work, if a man was off the byworker would take his place. Also called a 'spareworker'
CADDIE - a young boy who did errands of various kinds. Now refers to a person who carries golf clubs around the courses for golfers
CADGER - a person who 'cadges' begs from passers by
CAINER - made cane walking sticks
CALCINER - a maker of lime from burning various types of bones
CALENDER - a person who listed documents
CALICO PRINTER - someone who printed the calico fabric
CAMBRIC MAKER - made this fine cotton material
CANDLE MAKER - someone who made and retailed candles
CAMLET TRADER - sold cloth used in cloaks, a heavy material
CAMPANER - a person who foundered bells
CANER - made the chair seats from interwoven split cane. Could also be called a or chair bottomer
CANNALLER - someone who worked the canals
CANUKE - a French silk weaver. There was an uprising of the Canukes in France where over 500 people died for better pay. Their fight was in vain as the surving silk weavers ended up being very poorly paid. The invention of a Jaquard loom enabled quicker weaving, thus reducing the price of silk dramatically in the 10 years following the revolt.

CANVASER - a person who made canvas for use as ships sails etc
CAP MAKER - made caps and hats for use by the working man and woman also called capper(s)
CAPTAIN - a person in charge of a group of soldiers or the man in charge on a ship or other vessel or could also be used by a supervisor/overseer in the mills
CARDROOMER -someone who worked in the carding section of a mill
CARDER - a person who cards the fleece using wires either attached to hand held boards or a machine
CARD NAILER - kept the nails on the carding machine in good order
CARETAKER - someone who looks after another persons building, mill, warehouse etc
CARTER - someone who carries goods normally on a handcart
CART WHEELER - a maker of wheels for use on carts
CARTOGRAPHER - a person who made maps
CARTOMANCER - a person, normally a woman, who used cards to fortell the future
CARTWRIGHT - made carts and other wheeled vehicles
CASTRATOR - a person who castrated animals, usually in a farm environment
CATCHPOLE - a bailiff
CATTLE JOBBER - a dealer in cattle
CAULKER - someone who used a water tight material to make windows etc watertight
CELLARMAN - a man who looks after the keeping of beer in an inn or tavern and normally in a cellar
CHAFF CUTTER - cut the stalks of straw into chaff so that it could be used for animal bedding or feed
CHAIR BODGER - a person who repaired chairs
CHAMBERMAID - a servant who attended her female employer in her bedroom, also found in inns and taverns
CHEESE FACTOR - bought cheese from the farms and acted as a middleman, a dealer
CHANDLER - normally associated with the selling of goods for vessels or the selling of tallow, candles etc
CHAPELER - a maker of hats, derived from a French word 'chapeau' hat
CHARCOAL BURNER - a maker of charcoal. He chopped and burnt wood in the woods or forests for use in the foundries. He would nearly always live in the woods while making his charcoal so as to keep an eye on the work.
CHARWOMAN - a woman who went from house to house cleaning
CHATELAINE - the chief lady in a castle, she was the keeper of the keys and normally wore them around her waist on a belt and chains long enough to open doors without removing the keys from her waist.
CHECKWEIGHMAN - weighed and checked the weight of goods, coal etc for workers who were paid by what they acheived and not by the day
CHIFFONIER - a person who made wigs
CHIMNEY SWEEP - a person who cleaned chimneys. Normally a master sweep sent his boys up the narrow chimneys with brushes to clean away the burnt carbon, soot from the chinmeys
CHINA MAN - a dealer in china
- this is a term associated with carpenters
CHIRUGION - a term normally associated with an old fashioned surgeon
CLAYMAN - associated with men who worked with clay for the making of household bricks
CLERIC - vicar, priest or minister
CLOD HOPPER - a country term for a person who ploughed fields. Clod being a term for the soil
CLOTH PICKER - removed the stray lose threads form the finished peice of cloth
CLOTHIER - a maker and seller of clothes
CLOUTER - a maker of nails, clout being a name for a specific type of nail
COACHMAN - a driver of coaches

COALCROPPER - someone who dug and/or found coal on or near the surface
COAL DRAWER - worked in the mines moving the coal carts to the bottom of the shaft
COALMAN / COAL MERCHANT - sold coal in sacks from either the back of a cart or horsedrawn vehicle, later on open wagons
COAL RUNNER - attended the coal carts underground
COBBLER - a maker or repairer of shoes
COBLEMAN - a fisherman who worked on a cobble, a coastal fishing boat. Whitby was famous for their cobble vessels
COINER - a coiner was a person who filed or shaved amounts off coins of the realm and then melted the shaving down to make another coin. This at one time was a hanging offence
COLLIER - a coal miner
COLOUR MAN - the person who had the responsibility of controlling the colour of dye in the dyehouse
COMPOSITOR - a man who set the type for the printing of the written word, This person had to be literate
CONEY CATCHER - a rural occupation, the rabbit catcher
CONFECTIONER - a maker of cakes and sweets
COOPER - someone who made barrels for various uses
COPPERSMITH - a person who worked with copper
CORACLE MAKER - a Welsh and Irish occupation, they made round, normally single person boats for fishing on rivers
CORDINER or CORDWAINER - a person who worked with fine leathers either in the making of shoes or fine gloves
COSTERMONGER - a seller of fruit and veg
COTTAGER - an ag. lab who lived in a cottage belonging to the farm where he lived
COW LEECH - a cow doctor - the predecer to a vet
COWHERDER - a person, normally of low skills who looked after cattle
COWKEEPER - someone who kept a cow for their own use
COXWAIN - the person who steered a vessel
CRIER - the Town Crier, one who announced news in a public place
CROFTER - a person, usually with his family, that had a small parcel of land and used that land to sustain themselves this is nornally a Scottish term
CROPPER - a farmer who works someone elses land and receives a portion of that crop or a portion of the money received from the sale of the crop as his wages for the year
CURER - normally cures tabacco but can also cure pork for hams etc
CURRIER - cures or tans hides in the process of making leather
CUTLER - a person who sells knives etc
CUTTER - one whose job was to "cut" or castrate male lambs and calves and possibly young stallions.
DAGUERREOTYPE ARTIST - a very early name for a photographer. The images being very black and brown, negativy in appearance and don't always stand the test of time
DAIRYMAN - worker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products
DAY MAN - the same as a journeyman, a man employed by the day
DEATHMAN - a hangman
DECOYMAN - worked in the country or on an estate and guided the fowl into the nets for catching
DIKEMAN / DYKEMAN - a worker in rural areas where dykes needed cleaning and maintaining
DIPPER - a worker in the pottery industry who dipped the pots in glaze ready to be fired
DISH THROWER - someone who made dishes etc on a potters wheel
DISH TURNER - someone who made wooden bowls etc probably on a laithe
DISTILLER - someone who made a spirit based alcohol
DOCKER - someone who worked on the docks
DOCK MASTER - the man in charge of the docks
DOMESTIC SERVANT- a servant who worked in the house, normally a female in documents dom. serv. is sometimes used as the short form
DOOR  BOY - a lad who opened and closed the vent doors  in a mine
DOOR KEEPER - a porter
DOUBLER - operated a machine that twisted fibres together
DOWSER / DIVINER - a person who used a Y shaped twig to determine where water should be
DRAPER - a dealer in materials and similar items
DRAWBOY - aweavers assistant
DRAYMAN - the driver of a wagon / cart. A wagon that delivered beer to inns etc was called a dray and the drayman delivered the beer
DRESSER - someone who worked a machine in the textile industry
DRIPPING MAN - a person who was a dealer in dripping or fat
DRIVER - an overseer or supervisor
DROVER - a sheep or cattle driver. There were many drover roads leading from the North of England or Scotland down to great markets. One such road was from Dumfries and Galloway to Lincoln.
DRUGGER - a chemist
DRY SALTER - a dealer and or curer of dried meats
DUSTMAN - a person who collected reguse from people homes. Can also be called a dustbin man
DRY STONE WALLER - a builder of walls using stones. The art is to have a ridge of thin stones along the top, in an upright position. The weight of these stones kept the wall from falling.
DYER - a fabric or cloth colourist
ENGINEMAN - a man who had the resposibility for looking after and maintaining an engine.
ENUMERATOR - a person who visited individual houses, in their designated area, and took information about the inhabitants of that dwelling during the census period
ESQUIRE - a gentleman, hence the term 'esquire' as in Mr C Jones, esq.,

EXCHEQUER - a collector of taxes
EXCISEMAN - a revenuer or Custom and Excise man
FAGETTER - a person who collected wood or twigs and then bound them together for sale as firewood. A bunch of wood being called a faggot
FANCY-PEARL MAKER - made mother of pearl buttons
FARRIER - a blacksmith as part of his trade made and shod horses .
FEATHER-DRESSER - someone that cleaned and made feathers ready for sale
FEATHERMAN - dealer in plumes and exotic feathers
FELLER - a person who felled trees in woodlands
FELL MONGER - a person who removed the unwanted hair from skins before the tanning process could begin
FELTER - a person who worked in the hat making process

FENDERSMITH - One who cleaned and repaired fenders in great houses. Also responsible for lighting the fire in said houses.
FETTLER - someone who cleaned machines i.e. to give a good fettling means to get really clean
FILE CUTTER - a maker of files
FILLER - a person in a mill who filled the bobbins
FINISHER - a person in either a mill or the clothing industry that made an article ready for use
FIREMAN - a person who kept the fires well attended on boilers, either in industry, trains or ships. A later description is of a man whose job it was to extinguish fires
FLAXDRESSER - a person who prepared flax before the spinning process
FLESHMONGER -a butcher
FLETCHER - a person who made arrows
FLOWERER - a person, probably a lady or teenager, who sews flowers onto muslin
FLYCOACHMAN - a coach driver employed by the day, who dove a light weight coach
FLYMAN - a stage hand in the theatre,
FOOT PAD - a burglar
FORESTER - a person who was responsible for looking after a forest
FORGEMAN - a blacksmith
FORGER - a blacksmith
FRAME SPINNER - a person who worked a weaving loom
FRAMEWORKER KNITTER - a person who made hosiery
FREEMASON - a cutter of stone, a skilled man

FUMIGATOR - one who cleaned houses by burning sulphur. A concoction could also be mixed to a paste and pasted the the walls. This supposidly stopped burrowing insects from infesting the fabric of the building
FUNAMBULIST - tightrope walker as seen in a circus or in the theatre
FURRIER - someone who made clothing from fur
FUSTION CUTTER - a cutter and trimmer of cloth
GAFFER - a person in charge of a crew of workers
GALVANISER - iron worker
GAOLER - a person in charge of a group of prisoners
GAUGER - customs official who calculated the amount of duty on imported alcohol
GELDER - a person who castrated horses

GENTLEMAN/ WOMAN  - a man or woman who had enough money to provide for their needs without working
GILDER - a person who applied the thin gold leaf to books, mouldings etc
GLAZIER - a person who cut glass and often fitted the glass into the appropriate opening
GLOVER - one that makes or sells gloves
GOLDSMITH - a craftsman who made items from gold
GONAFERMA - a person who removed excrament from dwellings before the days of water closets

GOOSE HERD - a person who looks after geese
GREAVE / GRIEVE - bailiff, foreman this is normally a Scottish term
GREENGROCER - sells fruit and veg
GREENSMITH - a craftsman or person who works with copper
HACKNEY MAN - a person who either rented or drove a hackney carriage
HAIR MERCHANT - a dealer in hair, normally horse hair used in stuffing chairs and upholstry
HARLOT - a woman with lose morals
HATTER - a maker and seller of hats, normally mens
HAWKER - a person who toured the streets selling items i.e. salt
HAYMONGER - a dealer in hay or other foodstuffs
HEADSMAN - either a hangman or an execution who used a blade
HEELMAKER - made heels for shoes
HENCHMAN - a hangman or executioner
HEWER - a person who cut coal from the face of the mine
HIGHWAYMAN - a thief who robs travellers on public roads. Dick Turpin being the most famous of these
HODSMAN - an assistant to a stone mason or a person who carried bricks in a hod
HOOPER - a person who makes the hoops that hold the casks together
HOSIER - a seller of hosiery, gloves etc
HOSTELLER - an in or tavern keeper
HOSTLER - a person who cared for horses
HURDLER - a person who made a fence type structure called a hurdle
HUSBANDMAN - a farmer who rented his farm
IRON FOUNDER - a person who works in an iron foundry
IRON MONGER - a person who traditionally sold the products of the iron foundry
IRON MASTER - the owner of a foundry
IVORY WORKERS - included makers of combs, boxes, billard balls, buttons, and keys for pianofortes
JACKTAR - a sailor
JAPANNER - a person who puts a hard laquer on items
JOBBER - a person who is paid by what amount they produce as opposed to by the day, week or year
JOBBING GARDENER - a gardner who is paid by the job and not employed by anyone in particular

JOINER - a skilled carpenter
JOURNEYMAN - a person who is paid by the day for a days work
KEELMAN - a man who works on a flat bottomed vessel
KILNER - a person in charge of a kiln, be it for malt, lime etc
KNOCKER-UPPER - a man paid to wake people up usually by tapping on their bedroom windows with a long stick
LACE-DRAWER - a worker with lace, normally a child

LATHER-BOY - a young lad who put the shaving foam on the faces of men in barbers shops, ready for the barber to shave
LAUNDERER - a woman who was paid to wash clothes
LAYEROUTER - usually a woman who prepared bodies for burial

LEECH - a doctor
LIGHTERMAN - a person who worked on a boat
LOCK KEEPER - a person who lived at the side of a canal and opened and shut the lock gates for the barges
MAID - a female servant
MALSTER - a person who prepared the malt and/or made the beer

MANTUAMAKER - made ladies' cloaks after a style reputedly once in fashion in the Italian city of Mantua
MASON - a craftsman who worked with stone
MASTER MARINER - the person in charge of a vessel, the captain
MEALMAN - a dealer in meal or flour
MERCER - a seller/dealer in cloth

MIDDEN MAN - the dustman who collected the household refuse. Midden being an old term for where rubbish was dumped
MIDWIFE - a local woman who delivered babies
MILLER - a person who worked or owned a mill e.g. cornmill, sawmill,
MILLINER - a woman who made ladies hats
MILLWRIGHT - a person who built the mills
MONTHLY NURSE - a local woman who helped new mothers in the first months
MUFFIN MAKER - a person who made muffins. According to the nursery rhyme, the muffin man lived in Drury lane
MUFFIN MAN - a street seller of muffins
MULE MINDER - a person in a mill who was responsible for the spinning mule
NAVIGATOR - a 'navvie' was an unskilled worker who dug the canals and later laid the rail tracks. Now is a term for any roadrepairer
NIGHT SOILMAN - a person who emptied cesspits and outside toilets
NIGHTWATCHMAN - a man who looked after property or later a man who made sure that nobody vandalised buildings site or roadwords during the night hours
NIT-PICKER - one who picked the nits out of the elaborate Stuart period wigs
NOB THATCHER - a wig maker
NOB PICKER - a person, not always an adult, who cleaned wigs by picking out the 'nasty things' that gathered by wearing the wigs daily
ORRERY MAKER - made a mechanical apparatus for showing the movements of the planets (named after the Earl of Orrery the inventor)
ORRICE WEAVER - designer of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk
OSIER PEELER - removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
OSTLER - a person who looks after horses
OUTWORKER - a person who works in their own home for an employer
OVERLOOKER - a supervisor, especially in the textile mills
OWLER - sheep or wool smuggler
PARFUMIER - manufacturer and seller of scents
PARGETER - used ornimental plaster to decorate buildings
PAUPER - a farm worker or ag.lab. Is also a term to a poor person who has to obtain money from 'the parish' or other source

PAVER / PAVIER - a person who laid the paving stones on footpaths. In some areas the paving stones are still called paviers
PEELER - a policeman named after Sir Robert Peel
PERUKER - a maker of wigs
PETARDIER - one who made an explosive devise that was attached to the gate of a castle. This being attached by the petardiers assistant. The petardier being too valued a person by way of his explosive knowledge to risk being blown up with the gate. The saying 'hoisted on your own pitard' is derived from this occupation
PETTY CHAPMAN - itinerant dealer in small goods, a pedlar
PEWTERER - made pewter bowls, jusgs and cutlery
PICKER - one who cast the shuttle on a loom
PIECENER - one who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)
PIGMAN - one who bred or looked after pigs on the farm
PIKELET MAKER - baker who specialised in making pikelets (crumpets)
PINDER - dog catcher also a term used to describe a field where cattle grazed
PINNER UP - dressmakers assistant who did the menial jobs
PIRN WINDER - wound the yarn onto large bobbins which were then ready for the looms in a cotton mill
PIT BROW LASS - female worker who worked on the surface of the mines.
PITMAN - coal miner
PLAITER - platted straw for use in the making of hats
PLAIN WORKER - performed plain sewing or simple sewing tasks
PLATELAYER - men who laid and later maintained railway tracks

PLOD - a police constable called as he 'plodded' the streets. Also known as PC Plod
PLOWMAN - farmer
PLOWWRIGHT - a person who made and/or repaired the plows
PLUMER - made or sold plumes and exotic feathers for use in hats and gowns
PLUMBUM WORKER - a plumber
POINTSMAN - railway worker who operated the points from a building at the side of the railway line
PORTER - a person incharge of a door, gate or other opening
POSTILLION - One who rides near or on one of the leading horses pulling a carriage to act as a guide
POST BOY - a carrier of mail from town to town on a coach
POT BOY / MAN - a person who worked in a public house and tidied away the dirty pots, glasses etc
POTTER - maker or seller of pottery
POTTER THROWER - potter who used a wheel to make his pots
POULTER - seller of poultry
POWER LOOM TUNER - someone who kept the mill looms in fine working order
PRESTIDIGATOR - a magician or cunjuror. Normally found as a circus or theatre act.
PUBLICAN - inn or tavern keeper
PUDDLER - worked clay into puddle and make watertight
QUARRYMAN - a worker in a quarry, usually stone
QUILTER - one who quilted material either for decoration, clothing or bedding
RAG CUTTER - one who cut up rags into small pieces to be used in the paper making process
RAG MAN - one who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags. This was normally done with a horse and cart
RAG AND BONE MAN - one who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish, usually in exchange for a small item but was not always the case
RAG PICKER - sorted through rags
RAKER - street sanitation worker
RATONER -a rat catcher
RATTLEWATCH - the town watchman
RECTIFIER - a person who distilled and made alcoholic spirits
REDSMITH - goldsmith
REEDER - worked with reeds for hedging or thatching
REEDMAKER - made the pipe for a musical instrumen
REELER - operated the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin
REEVE - church warden
REGISTRAR - an official who registers events such as births etc
REVENUER - taxman who enforces tax levies on liquor - Customs & Excise
RIDDLER - a wool stapler
RIGGER -a person who works on the ships rigging
RIVERMAN - worker on a river boat
ROCKMAN - a person who worked in a quarry and usually placed the charges
ROLLEYWAY MAN - he maintained the underground road in the mines
ROLL TURNER - carder of wool and/or cotton
ROMAN PLASTERER - one who worked in the decorative process of stuccoing and ornate plaster
ROPER - maker of rope or nets
ROVER - archer or operator of a machine used in mills (cotton) which prepared the fibre that had been carded into rolls
RODMAN - the assistant of a survey, the man or boy who held the surveying pole
RUBBLER - sorted the small stones in the quarries, these could then be inturn used for possibly road hardcore
RUGMAN - dealer in rugs
RUNNER - a messenger could also be a term used for a messenger in a court environment
RUSTLER - cattle thief, the term could also be used for sheep
SADDLER - one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, and other leather equipment used in riding
SAGGAR MAKER - one who made fireclay containers for putting unfired earthernware in
SALTER / DRYSALTER - one who made or dealt in salt or could also be a dealer in salted goods and could also be called a Salt Hawker
SARCINET WEAVER - a weaver of silk
SAND HOG - those who dug a tunnel under a river i.e. under the river Thames for the Dartford Tunnel
SANDWICHMAN - a person who wears a billboard over his shoulders on which advertising is placed and then walks around the streets
SAW DOCTOR - made, repaired, maintained and sharpened cutting tools and saw blades
SAWYER - saws timber to boards in a sawyard or woodyard
SAY WEAVER - a person who made Say, material used for table cloths
SCALERAKER - a person who was employed by the parish to clean the streets
SCAPPLER - a person who started the shaping of stone before being completed by a mason
SCAVELMAN - a man who was employed to keep waterways and ditches clean
SCHRIMPSCHONGER - one who carves in bone, ivory or even wood. Quite a few sailors during their long voyages did this and their finished work is called Scrimshaw.
SCOTCH DRAPER - a perspn who sold goods from door to door and payment being made over a number of weeks or as it was at one time called 'the never never'
SCREENER - screened ore at the mines surface, by using a riddle to sort into differant sizes
SCRIBE - clerk, one who dealt with the paperwork
SCRIVENER - clerk, a notary, one who scribes
SCRIBBLER - worked in a scibbling mill where wool was roughly carded before the spinning process took place
SCRIBER - employed at the docks marking the bales of cotton so that the brokers knew the approx. weight of each bale
SCRIPTURE READER - employed by the local clergy to go around an area reading parts of the bible. This was hopefully, to persuade people to attend church. Another term for this form of employment when done by a woman was a BIBLE WOMAN
SCRIVENER - wrote out legal documents, a notary etc
SCRUTINEER - election judge, one who made sure that the count was correct and the election had taken place fairly
SCUTCHER - beat the flax to soften the straw in the bundles
SCULLERY MAID - female servant who was normally set to work in the scullery, doing very lowly tasks
SCULLION - a male servant who was given very lowlyl tasks to do
SEARCHER - another term for a customs man
SECRET SPRINGER - a maker of watch springs
SEEDSMAN - sower of seeds or could also be used for a man that sold seed
SEDGEMAN - skilled workman who applied sedge (grass) as a roofing material. We all know thatch but sedge was earlier
SELF ACTING MINDER - one in charge of a spinning mule in the mills after the industrial revolution
SEMI LORER - a leather thong maker
SEMPSTER - seamstress
SENESCHAL - A senior steward at the Manor
SEWER HUNTER - scavenger who concentrated on the sewers trying to find valuable objects
SEWER RAT - bricklayer who specialised in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
SEWING CLERK - collector of clothing piecework
SEWSTER - seamstress
SEXTON - employed by the church. He dug the graves when needed, looked after the grounds and on occasion rang the bells
SHAGREEN CASE MAKER - a work with fine shagreen leather
SHARECROPPER - a tenant farmer who income would be with part of the crop, a share. This was normally quite a small share
SHEARER - sheared the sheep and normally went from farm to farm during the season
SHEARGRINDER - sharpened shears, scissors and other items that needed a sharp edge to be efficient in their use
SHEARMAN - one who cut cloth using large shear type scissors
SHEATH MAKER - a maker of scabbards, a place where a sword is kept and normally hung from the waist
SHEEPMAN - sheep herder
SHEPSTER - dressmaker
SHIFTER - miner paid a daily rate on a shift by shift basis and normally did repairs
SHINGLER - A roof tiler who used wooden tiles (shingles) to cover the roof of a building or could also mean a forgeman
SHIP HUSBAND - repaired the ships while in port
SHIP MASTER - owner and/or captain of a ship
SHIPWRIGHT - constructor and/or repairer or ships
SHOE FINDER - sold tools for shoemakers
SHOESMITH - cobbler,but one who normally shod horses
SHOE WIPER - servant who task it was to clean/polish shoes
SHOT FIRER - a person who was responsible for the firings or blastings in mines or quarries
SHRAGER - a trimmer or pruner of trees or bushes
SHUFFLER - one who worked in the yard on a farm
SHUNTER - a person whose job it was to move wagons around railway yards.There was a UK tv programme called 'Wheeltappers and Shunters Club'
SHUTTLE MAKER - a maker of shuttles for use in the weaving process
SICKLEMAN - reaper one who used a sickle to cut crops, weeds, reeds etc
SIDESMAN - an assistant to the churchwarden
SILK ENGINE TURNER - he turned the wheel on automatic silk looms
SILK THROWER - one who worked in the silk industry
SILKER - sewed the ends of the fabric to stop the fraying of the material
SILK DRESSER - prepared the silk threads for weaving
SILK MERCER - he sold finished silk cloth
SILK TWISTER - silk spinner
SIMPLER - worked with herbs and spices making remedies. These remedies were at one times called 'simples'
SILVERSMITH - worker in silver, as opposed to a goldsmith
SISSOR - a tailor
SIZER - an applier of size to cloth or could also work in a mill producing paper
SKEINER MAKER - a maker of wheels used in spinning process, where yarn was wound, hence the term a skein of thread
SKEPPER - a beehive maker and/or seller
SKINKER - one who tapped the barrels in an alehouse
SKINNER - a dealer in hides
SKIPMAKER - a maker of skips or tubs that were used in mines for moving men or coal to the surface
SKIPPER - Captain of a ship
SKREW - a gaoler, warder. A person who was responsible for prisoners in a jail/gaol. Originally one who turned the 'skrew' tighter on the treadmill or other machine that made the prisoner work harder
SLAPPER - a preparer of clay to be used by a potter
SLATER - roofer, but one who usually used a slate tile as opposed to a shingle (wood)
SLAYMAKER - pegs used in weaving process
SLUBBER - an operator of a machine used in the cotton spinning industry
SLUBBER DOFFER - removed the bobbins from the spindles
SMACKMAN - worked on a sailing ship
SMALLWARE MAKER - who made tapes, braids and other decorative wears
SMELTER - worker in a metal smelter
SMIDDY - smith. Was used as a term for the local blacksmith
SMITH - metal worker, undefined, differing from a whitesmith, blacksmith etc
SMUGSMITH - smuggler. One who brought contraband into the country and did not pay a duty
SNAPPER - glass factory worker who put molded bottle in a furnace
SNUFFER MAKER - made the candle snuffer
SOAP BOILER - soap maker
SOJOURNER CLOTHIER - travelling clothes salesman
SOLICITOR - a lawyer
SORTOR - a tailor
SPALLIER - tin worker
SPICER - a dealer in spices
SPINNER - spins yarn, not always in a mill
SPLITTER - splits stone or wood using traditional hand tools
SPOONER - a maker of spoons
SQUATTER - a person or family who legally could build a dwelling on someone elses land as long as, by sunset of the day they arrived, they had a hearth with a fire and a chimney for the smoke. Their home could take time but the fire, hearth and chimney were the legal reqiurement and must be in place by sunset.
SQUIRE - a gentleman, hence the term 'esquire' as in Mr C Jones, esq.,
SUTLER - a camp follower who set up small 'shops' to retail food and other goods needed by soldiers either on the march or in camp
STALLMAN -one who sold goods on a market stall
STAMPMAN - worked an ore crushing machine
STATIONER - a person who sold writing implements and possibly books
STATIST - a politician, statesman
STAY MAKER - one who made corsets for both men and women
STEEPLE JACKER - one who worked on and repaired if needed high buildings for example, churches, industrial chimneys etc
STEERSMAN - one who steered a ship or other waterborn vessel
STENTERER - operated the cloth finishing machine
STEWARD - in charge of but not the owner of a castle or property or a person who looks after passengers onboard ships
STICHER - someone who does decorative needlework on ladies dresses or other finery
STOCKINGER - someone who either makes or sells stockings
STOKER - a man who looks after a boiler, making sure that the steam produced is available when needed
STONE PICKER - a day or seasonal worker who removes stones from fields before either ploughing or planting
STONE WORKERS - worked alongside masons or in quarries
STOREMAN - a person who looks after the stock in a warehouse or other place where goods are stored before being sold
STRAVAGER - a vagrant, one who wandered with no specific abode
STRAW JOINER - one who thatched roofs
STRAW PLAITER - one who made straw braids for the hat industry
STREAKER - usually a woman who prepared the body for burial. Could also be called a layerouter
STRIKER - blacksmiths helper but could also be a harpooner on a whaling ship
STRIPPER - removed the rubbish from the carding machines in the woollen mills
STRINGER - a bowstring maker
STUFF WEAVER - a person who wove the rough parts of the flax
SUCKSMITH - a ploughshare maker
SUMPTER - a porter, one who carried goods by cart or luggage on a station platform
SUTLER - a hawker of sorts in an army camp
SWAILER - a grain merchant
SWAIN - herdsman, normally cows
SWEEP - a chimneysweep
SWINEHERDER -a person who kept pigs
SWINGLER - a beater of flax
SWORD CUTLER - a maker of swords
TABLER - a man or woman who ran a boarding or lodging house
TACKLER - an overlooker in the weaving sheds
TACKSMAN - someone who leased a parcel of land and then sublet into smaller portions
TAILOR - a maker of mens suits and clothing
TALLOW CHANDLER - maker of candles and could also sell his wares
TALLY CLERK - a person who kept a tally, a check, of the amount of goods going in and out of warehouses etc. The Tallyman could also be a term used for the rentman or a person from whom you had borrowed money and the tallyman came for that weeks installment
TALLYMAN - a seller sold goods or lent money that were paid/repaid in installments
TAN BARK STRIPPER - collected the raw material, bark, that was used in the tanning ofhides
TANNER - who one tanned the hides of cattle to make leather
TAPER WEAVER - a wick maker for use in candles
TAPICER - a weaver of the worsted cloth
TAPLEY - one who puts the 'tap' in a cask of ale/beer
TAPPIOLOGIST - someone who taps the wheels of trains and listens for the clear sound given off by an unflawed or damanged wheel
TAPSTER - bartender or barmaid in an alehouse, tavern or inn
TAR BOY - applied tar to sheep when they were caught by the shears of the shearers. This sealed the skin from the area and hopefully, stopped infection and 'fly strike'
TASSELER - one who made tassels used in furnishings or nobleman
TAVERNER - an innkeeper
TEAMER / TEAMSTER - the man in charge of a team of horses
TEASER - a person who teased open the matted wool so that the carder could do their job quicker and easier
TEEMER - someone who poured the molten metals into moulds in a foundry
TENTER - one who stretched the cloth on a machine giving a smilar appearance to a taught tent during the drying process
TEXTOR - weaver a worker in textiles
THATCHER - a person who thatched buildings, normally using reeds or straw
THRESHER - the grain was seperated from the husks and straw by the thresher, later a machine did the same task
TICKNEY MAN - a hawker of pots
TIDESMAN or TIDE WAITE - customs official who checked the ships coming into harbour.  He boarded the vessels and made sure all rules were adhered to
TIEMAKER - a maker of wooden railway ties
TILER - a roofer who puts slates or tiles on a roof
TILLER - a farmer
TILLMAN - a ploughman
TINKER - traveling repairman. Hence the phrase 'to tinker' try and mend. Could also be used to describe someone who also sold pots and pans
TINMAN - a tinsmith one who makes things from tin
TINNER - a maker of tin items
TINTER - a person who colour tints material and/ or photographs before the development of colour photography
TIPPLER - a keeper of an alehouse. Hence the term ' to have a tipple' a drink of an alcoholic beverage
TOBACCO SPINNER - a person who rolled cigars
TODHUNTER - a fox hunter paid by the local parish. A fox in county terms being called 'a tod(d)'
TOE RAG - a worker on the docks who portered corn. Also a non-complimentary term used to describe a person
TOLLGATE KEEPER - a collector of tolls. A payment must be made so that you can walk or ride over a portion of road. The collector of these tolls normally had a dwelling by his gate or barrier that he then opened upon payment of the set fee
TOOL HELVER - a tool handle maker, normally for hand tools
TOPMAN - a sailor who specifically worked in the rigging of the vessel
TOP SAWYER - the top man in a saw pit, as opposed to the man below who got all the sawdust etc
TOPSMAN - a man in charge of a heard of cattle been driven to market
TOUCH HOLER - a worker in the manufacturer of guns
TOW CARD MAKER - a maker of tow cards that were used in the textile industry
TOWN CHAMBERLAIN - a person who looked after the business side of a town, i.e. the Town Clerk
TOWN CRIER - a person who made announcements or gave out news publically in the streets of a town. He rang a bell or blew a horn to attract attention to his news
TOWN HUSBAND - was paid by the Parish to collect money from men who women had claimed were the fathers of their base born children, otherwise they were a burden on the Parish
TOWNSWAITER - a Revenue man or Custom & Excise man
TOZER - teased cloth in the woollen mills, sometimes using the natural teazle heads
TRAGEDIAN - an actor, thespian

TRANQUETER - person who made hoops
TRANTER - peddler
TRAPPER - he opened the gates at the pithead for the miners to go down or come out of the shaft lift
TROTMAN -a messenger or a person who ran small errands
TRUGGER - a maker of trugs, a long basket normally used in a gardening environment.
TUBBER - a cooper, a maker of tubs, barrels or kegs
TURNER - a worker on a lathe
TURNKEY -a prison warder or jail keeper. One who turned the key on a cell, hense the term turnkey
TURNSPIT - one who operated the spit handle usually in the kitchen of a fine house. Usually a child or young person
TWISTER - one who operated the machine used for twisting yarns and threads together
TWIST HAND - one who operated a lace machine
ULNAGER - a person who could be trusted to determine the quality of woollen stuffs
VALET - a manservant who looked after the needs of the gentry or a gentleman
VALUATOR - a valuer of goods and or chattels
VASSAL - a low servant
VATMAN - a worker with vats in the brewing industry
VERGER - they worked in the church and helped with the everyday running of the parish
VESTMENTMAKER - a maker of vestments (priests clothing)
VICTUALER - sold food and drink in a public house, inn or tavern. This normally needed a license

VIEWER - the person who is responsible for the methods of working and ventilation in a mine. In larger mines there could be an Under Viewer to share the responsibilities.
VINTNER - a merchant who purveyed wine  

 VULCAN - a blacksmith. There is also a process that metal goes through called vulcanisation
WABSTER - a weaver, normally in their own homes
WAGONER - the driver of a wagon or other similar vehicle
WAINWRIGHT - a person who built wagons or repaired them
WAKEMAN - a night watchman, one who either walked the streets or watched over a property normally sitting out the night in a hut of sorts
WALKER - a worker with cloth
WALLER - a builder of drystone walls, normally in rural areas
WANTER - a mole catcher, these were very common in the more rural areas. The moles were sometimes hung on fences or poles
WARDER -a man or woman in charge of prisoners in a gaol
WAREHOUSEMAN -a worker in a warehouse
WARPER - a person, normally a man, who set the warp thread on the looms. The weft threads being put in place by the shuttle
WARRENER - a person who had a parcel of land that was used for the breeding of rabbits for food or fur
WASHMAN - a person who coated the tin with a paint or other covering
WASTEMAN - a person who checked old mine working for gas, he would more often than not use a canary
WATCH FINISHER - the final process in the completion of watchmaking, the person who put it all together
WATCHMAN - a man who patrolled the streets at night or watched over a property
WATER BAILIFF - a person responsible for a stretch of river, making sure that no un authorised person fished that stretch of water
WATER CARRIER - carried and sold fresh water to inner city households that had no access to water
WATER DIVINER - a person who found water by means of a Y shaped twig

WATER GILDER -he trapped water fowl normally for the owner of the land on which he worked. This could also be done when the 'Lord' was having a 'shoot'
WATER LEADER - carried and sold fresh water to inner city households that had no access to water
WATERMAN - a man who worked the boats, barges on rivers or canals either on board or on land
WATTLE HURDLE MAKER - hurdles are a type of woven fencing used to keep small animals fenced in. Now are coming popular as alternative garden fencing
WAY-MAKER - a maker of roads, normally not a skilled worker
WAY MAN - a person who surveyed the roads or ways
WEBSTER-a weaver
WEIGHER - he on the docks and weighed the goods/cargo as they came onto shore
WELL SINKER - a digger of wells, could have travelled the area
WELL WRIGHT - made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in the well
WET NURSE - a woman, normally a local woman who had not long given birth herself, employed to suckle the child of another. This practice was common among the wives of gentry
WETTER - he made paper slightly damp so that the printing inks would stick to the paper easier
WHARFINGER - one who owned a wharfe where boats, barges could be moored and unloaded
WHEEL TAPPER - railway worker who train wheels by striking them and listening for a clear tone. There was a UK tv programme called 'Wheeltappers and Shunters Club'
WHEELER - one who led the pit ponies that pulled the tubs in the mines. This could be a dangerous job as the horses could trap the wheeler between the tub and the pit wall.
WHACKER - the driver of a team of horses
WHEELWRIGHT - a waggon wheel maker or repairer
WHIG - horse driver
WHIPMAKER - a person who made whips, normally for carriage drivers
WHIPPERIN - a person who controlled the hounds in a hunt, by use of a whip. Hense the term 'whiper in' someone who gathered by way of a whip
WHITE LIMER - a plasterer who used white lime to cover the walls of buildings
WHITE SMITH - a worker with tin or other light metals
WHITENING MAKER - a person who made the white wash that covered the inside and outside of rural dwellings
WHITENER - a person who made cloth whiter by using a bleaching process
WILLOWWEAVER - a weaver of willow in the basket making trade
WINDSTER - a winder of thread, normally silk
WOODREEVE - a person with the responsibility of looking after a stretch of woodland or forest
WOOLCOMBER - an operator of a machine separated the fibres by using a combing motion, ready for spinning
WOOL DRIVER - a person who drove, took the wool to market to be sold normally as an agent of the farmer
WOOL FACTOR - the agent acting on behalf of a woollen merchant
WOOLLEN PIECER - a woman who repaired broken threads on the machinery
WOOLSTAPLER - a person who sorted the differant grades of wool
WOOLSTED MAN - a person who sold the made up woollen material
WOOL WINDER - a person who made balls of wool ready to sell for use in knitting
WORSTED MANUFACTURER- a person who manuractured worsted, normally the owner of a mill or a person who made cloth in his own home in smaller quantities
XYLOGRAPHER - a maker of wooden blocks used in printing
YEARMAN - a person who was contracted to work for the same employer for 1 year
YEOMAN - a farmer who owns and works his own land
ZOOGRAPHER - a describer and classifier. Could work in a library or university

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