Wakefield Express 24th August 1918

Wakefield Express – 24th August 1918

More extracts from the pages of the Wakefield Express during the Great War.

Pvte. Fred Hopwood, K.O.Y.L.I., Moorland Place, Flockton, has been admitted to hosptal suffering from shell wounds and shell shock. He is nineteen years of age, and before enlisting he worked at Messrs. Stringer and Son’s colliery at Emley Moor.

Private Norman Fenton, Queen’s Westminster Rifle’s, son of Mr. and Mrs. W Fenton, Leeds Road, Tingley, has been gassed, and sent to Gosforth near Newcastle-on-Tyne. Pte. Fenton is barely twenty years of age, was educated at the Morley secondary School, and just previous to enlistment had obtained a clerkship at one of the local banks.

Private A Smith, Highland Light Infantry, son of Mrs. Batty, Carlton Street, Lawfield Lane, Wakefield was admitted to the 1st Australian General Hospital, Rouen on July 31st, suffering from a fractured arm, the result of gun-shot. He enlisted when sixteen years of age, and had been in the army three years.

Private Percy Taylor, Black Watch of Methley, is reported to have been killed in action. He was twenty years of age, and son of Mr and Mrs W G Taylor, of 7 Middle Row, Methley Junction. He enlisted on May 1st 1917 having previously been employed at the Junction Haigh Moor Pit of Messrs. Hy. Briggs and Son, and Co. Ltd. He was wounded in the right hand on August 2nd last year, but was soon able to return to the Front.

Gunner Wilfred Speight of the R.F.A., whose parents live at Reyner’s Yard, Horbury, is now at Springburn Hospital, Glasgow. While on active service in France he accidentally fell over some wire in a shallow trench, and the weight of his body falling on his right arm fractured the bones at the elbow joint. He pluckily stayed on duty, with his arm fractured for two days, and then had to report sick, not being able to carry on longer. He was sent to the rear to a Casualty Clearing Station, and then to a hospital, and was next sent over to hospital in this country. Before enlisting he was employed in the offices of Messrs. Chas. Roberts and Co. Horbury Junction.

Cadet Sydney Hudson, K.O.Y.L.I., son of Mr and Mrs Hudson, Queen Street, Normanton, was killed in action on July 20th, and he leaves a widow and one child. He went to France with the 1st 4th K.O.Y.L.I., and was gassed in the first enemy gas attack. He came home on leave in April, twelve months afterwards, and was wounded in July after returning. He came home to England for his commission and passed his first examination, but in his second he was turned down. He returned to France three weeks after Easter for three months further instruction, but, unfortunately was killed before he was able to gain his commission. He was 23 years of age, and before the war he worked at St. John’s Colliery, Newland.

The above notice for Sydney would have been sad news for his family and friends but, a boon for family historians.

What do we now know about Sydney?  We know his parents address.  We know he was married and had a small child.  We know his regiment, part of his service history and his date of death. We also know by his rank that he was in line for a commission, this is confirmed his death notice. We also know how old he was and where he was employed before he joined the army.  Information that could have taken longer to find and confirm.

Koyli CWGC headstone emblem

A visit to the CWGC website has a Serjeant S Hudson dying on the 20th of July with a service number of 242739, serving in the 5th Btn., KOYLI and resting in Chambrecy British Cemetery  along with over 400 other casualties.  The cemetery is on the outskirts of Riems on the road to Chateau Thierry.

The Registers of Soldiers’ Effects has a Sidney (change of spelling) confirming the CWGC’s information of service number and date of death.  This series of records also includes the amount of money due to his family – his wife, Florence who was sent the sum of £26.  There is a marriage of a Sydney Hudson to Florence Bennett in the Bramley registration district who went on to have a child in the Pontefract area in the summer of 1917 – could this be the couple?

Soldiers Died in the Great War 1914 – 1919 is a fantastic collection of information.  These records were a few year ago only available in a cd format, quite an expensive cd, I might add. This information, now one of the many sources available from Ancestry, gives name, rank regiment, service number, place of birth and enlistment along with date of death and type of casualty. So, Sidney was born in Normanton and enlisted there.  Information that tallies with the birth of a child to him and Florence in the Pontefract area.

The Medal Card for Sydney tells that he enlisted as a Private and entered France in April of 1915 and later attained the rank of Serjeant.  He was eligible for the 1915 Star, along with the British and Victory Medals – Pip, Squeak and Wilfred.

 Florence had a young child to support after Sydney was killed in action. Did she re-marry?  There is an entry on Freebmd for a Florence Hudson marrying a James F Hampshire in the summer of 1927 – was this her? Or is the entry for Florence Hudson and George E Pawson who marrying in the Pontefract region in the winter of 1930 the right entry?  Or, did Florence not marry again…………….Do you know?

Miss Louisa Fennell

Miss Louisa Fennell

Wakefield Art Gallery source unknown

Extracted from the Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer 18th April 1936:-

Pictures at Wakefield – Acquisitions of the Art Gallery. Among interesting events at the Wakefield City Art Gallery this year is to be an exhibition of the work of Miss Louisa Fennell, the members of whose family have presented to the gallery nine of the original water colours of Wakefield from which the well-known series of repodictions of views of Wakefield were taken.
Miss Fennell faithfully recorded interestinf views of Wakefield and the fact that the subjects of the scenes have now altered in most caes almost beyond recognition has made the paintings even more valuable from an historic point of view.  With the paintings have also been presented a copy of the artist’s book – “The live of St. Paul in Rome” – and the original sketches for the illustrations.  In addition the family have given three fan designs which are water colours on silk, two executed by Miss Emily E Fennell, and the other one by Miss Louisa Fennell.  The exhibition of Miss Louisa Fennell’s work is to be held in the Gallery in September.
Rece191nt acquisitions by the Gallery are two oil paintings, “Seascape”, by George Chambers, and “Cottage Interior”, by an unknown artist, both presented by Mr A A Haley, and a portrait by a talnted West Riding artist, John A Spancer, purchased by the Corporation from a recent exhibition at the Leeds Art Gallery.  Mr T Burgess of Rotherham, has loaned to the Gallery a painting by Pieter Wouverman, a 1th century Dutch artist, and a younger brother of the famous Philip Wouverman, who was born in Aarlem in 1614.

The article concludes with the following final paragraph:- 
The Wakefeld Art Gallery has come prominently to the fore rcently as a result of the special exhibition of pictures suitable for schools, arranged by the West Riding Education Committee, held there.  it was th first exhibition of its kind to be held in the North of England.  nearly 5,000 people visited the Gallery during the exhibition and inquiries concerning it have been received from all parts of the country, and one from South Africa.

Who was Louisa Fennell.  Louisa had been born in Wakefield in 1847 to William and Mary Fennell.  William worked as a Wine Merchant.  The family of 12, in 1881, lived in Westgate, Wakefield.  By 1901, William is an 83 year old widow, still working as a Wine merchant is  living with four of his spinster daughters at 31-33 Westgate, with two servants. Ten years later in 1911 Louisa was now the head of the household of 33 Westgate, where she lived with two of her sisters and one servant.  Home, 33 Westgate is quite a large house consising of 12 rooms.

Louisa was best known as a painter of landscapes and townscapes in the West Riding of Yorkshire, especially, Wakefield.  She also painted a series of townscapes of the City of York. She exhibited widely in the North of England – in 1884 her paintings were exhibited at the Spring Exhibition in Derby.

Sometime before 1930 Louisa moved to 21 St John’s Square, Wakefield (according to the 1911 census 21 St John’s Square was a 7 roomed dwelling), and it was there in 1939 that her sister, Bertha, was found living with one servant, Ivy Morgan (later to be Armitage) in 1939. Other residents were, a Company Director, Transport Engineer, Teacher, Headmistress, Inspector of Nurses and Midwives, HM Inspector of Schools.  The beautiful three sided square, with St John’s Church at its centre is quite unlike the square today.

Hepworth Gallery ©C Sklinar

Louisa died on the 13th of March 1930 and rests within the small burial ground surrounding St John’s Church. Probate was registered in London the following month and granted to Emily Esther Fennell and Bertha Fennell spinsters and Charles William Fennell engineers.  Effects £1808 10s  6d.

Wakefield City Art Gallery, now having moved to a purpose built building by the River Calder and re-named The Hepworth Gallery (taking its name from another Wakefield artist) has within its collection 17 Wakefield scenes and other works by Louisa.

Shipley Times & Express

Shipley Times & Express

The Letter Home is an extract from the Shpley Times & Express dated 7th June 1944.

via Shipley Times and Express 7 June 1944

The Letter Home
Each lad as he writes to his Mother
Is conjuring up in his mind
All the scenes and sounds of his homeland
And he folk that he’s left far behind

The tinkle of sheep on the hillside
The chime of the village church bells
The tang of the spray off the Solent
The grandeur of Cumberland dells

Some yearn to be tramping the moorland
Some sigh for the Yorkshire dales
The warm sunny slopes of the Mendips
The blue hazy hilltops of Wales

So let’s give Salute to our soldiers
And remember, wherever they roam
That when they’re not fighting, they’re thinking
And dreaming of England and home.

via Shipley Times and Express 7 June 1944

Wakefield Express 6th May 1944

Wakefield Express 6th May 1944

Extracts from the Wakefield Express

Missing  – Mr and Mrs H Walton, of the Gardeners Inn, Baker Lane, Stanley, has received official notification that their son, Donald, is missing as from March 14th, 1944.  He has served abroad for more than four years as L/Cpl in the Q.O.Y.D. (Queen’s Own Yorkshire Dragoons). Prior to joning up he worked at the Yorkshire Copper Works.

Killed In Action – Mr. Wm. Tennant, of 3 Chadwick’s Yard, Kirkgate, Wakefield, has received notification of death of his son, Private Jack Tennant, aged 20, of the York and Lancaster Regt., C.M.F., on March 22nd. A letter received from his captain says he was the first of a carrying party when a shell came over and killed him and three others.  Before joining the army he was employed at R.S. Dyson, Peterson Road.  He served in the North African campaign.

Wakefield Soldier Wins M.M.

Wakefield Soldier Wins M.M.

Military Medal via Wikipedia

Wakefield Express 10th February 1945.
Wakefield Solder wins M.M. – It is announced that the Military Medal has been awarded to L/Cpl Harry Ward, King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, of Wakefield, for services in North West Europe.  The citation states: “He has done outstanding work since he came into the line. On one occasion he commanded a stretcher bearer party which brough in a wounded officer and man under fire; he persevered even after he had made two attempts which were not successful and on the third attempt led his party up the road, which was covered by the enemy’s machine-guns and finally crawled back with the wounded men although it necessitated two journeys.  The distance that he had to cover was almost 200 yards on each occasion.  Ob many other occasions this N.C.O. has displayed courage and leadership by leaving his slit trench in the midst of  enemy mortar fire and artillery fire to go to the assistance of wounded men.  His example and constant cheerfulness has been a outstanding example to his comrades.”

The above information tells of how Harry was awarded the Military Medal, but who was he before he went to war?

Victoria Cross Trust

Victoria Cross Trust at Ashworth Barracks

After wanting to visit Ashworth Barracks for quite a while, I finally visited earlier this month armed with a small file with information about one of my two distant family members who had been awarded the Victoria Cross..

Ashworth Barracks

Set within a disused school, the museum is surrounded by houses and feels part of the community. Access is easy. I arrived via the A1, exiting at junction 36 and heading towards Doncaster where there were a few signs pointing the way.

After paying my entrance fee, I was already to go, but it was suggested that if I wait a few minutes I would be on the next guided tour……..am I glad I waited!

Paul, one of the volunteer guides arrived and as I was the only visitor at the time, I had a personal guided tour.

I had mentioned at reception that I had a distant connection to two V.C holders and as my guide and I walked across to the museum entrance, he commented to a couple of men about my connection. One of the men had heard of my recipient – I was surprised as it is hard to find any mention of him in books connected to either the Victoria Cross or Victoria Cross recipients. Could my day get any better………………yes, it could and it did.

The museum depicts the story of the Victoria Cross from its early days to modern times by the use of static displays, individual displays and representation. Paul and the other volunteer guides have a vast knowledge of the recipients, all men, and their deeds. Although women have been eligible to receive the Victoria Cross since 1921 there have been no female recipients since then.

During my visit one of the stories I heard was that  of Stanley Elton Hollis VC, who served in the Green Howards who had the distinction of receiving the only Victoria Cross awarded on D-Day. My father served in the Green Howards and like Stanley landed on Gold Beach.

One of the exhibits is a living room and backyard depicting a house during the time of WW2, with a welcoming fire, chair and outhouse with a bath hanging on the wall. Other exhibits include a mound of army desert boots under a draped Union Flag – the exhibit has no explanation, no photographs, it doesn’t need anything, the boots and the flag say all that needs to be said.

Another section of the museum houses a collection of German militaria. Some may not agree or feel comfortable that German artefacts are kept within the walls of a museum focusing on Commonwealth forces. But, and there is always a but! To have a war or conflict there has to be an enemy. Without the enemy would there be the Victoria Cross? Without the Victoria Cross would there be the Ashworth Museum? There are always two sides – and you can’t have one without the other. Artefacts included in this small section are letters, documentation and militaria.

A guided tour normally take around two hours – I think mine lasted a little longer than that. Did I mind?  No, as I was fortunate enough to hold a medal worn by one of my distant relatives. Paul, my guide was as surprised as I, when we learnt that the medal was part of the museum’s collection. I told you my day could only get better and it certainly did.

Did I have a good visit?      Yes.
Was the entrance fee of £7 worth it?      Yes.
Would I recommend the museum?     Yes.
Will I be going back?      Yes, of course I will.

 

Wakefield Express – Butel Brothers

Wakefield Express – Butel Brothers

Extracted from the Wakefield Express June 1944.

BROTHERS WOUNDED – Cpl. B butel and Pte. J. Butel, Dorsetshire Regiment, sons of Mr P.A. Butel, of la Moye, Jersey, Channel Islands, now living at 16, St John’s North, Wakefield, have been wounded in Normandy.

Butel brothers via Wakefield Express June 1944

Butel brothers via Wakefield Express June 1944

Although not a very good photocopy of the Butel brothers – the image was very dark. You can get an impression of the young men.

What were the Butel brothers doing in Wakefield.

Quite a few people from the Channel Islands came to Wakefield during WW2, leaving their home as the islands had been taken over by the German Army.  Were the brothers part of this migration to safety? Or, had they already left to join the British Army? Does anyone know?

Photographs – Who are You?

Photographs – Who are You?

A while ago I was donating somethings to charity – my chosen charity shop was closed, and as the items I wished to donate were in my car I stopped off at another charities shop to pass on the items. While in the shop one of the staff, I think it was the deputy manager, started talking when he spotted my interest in a framed photograph. It was old, in a wooden frame and was of a couple and looked to be from the first 20 years of the 1900’s. I love old photographs but I wish people would write on the back – passing on the information of who is who. My mum was an example of non-writing on photographs, well, why should she, she knew who the people were.

DSCF6080Anyway, moving on. I walked out of the shop armed with an envelope containing a handful of WW2 photographs and one of a lady who looked to have been captured in time a little earlier. I also had a simple wooden frame securing a grey board, upon the board was a printed military crest. Below the crest was the name, service number and regiment of a man written in what looked like a pencil, with the passing of time had faded and only the faint indentations of the writing implement were visible…………..that is another story!

I was told in the charity shop that they came from a house clearance in the Castleford/Normanton area.

Now is the time to try and link names to a lady and a few soldiers.

Starting with the lady, as you should in polite circles. Her dress looks to be from around the second decade of the 1900’s. Her hair is in a simple off the face style and she has a wistful look that could be tinged with sadness. Her dress or top is buttoned through and finished off with a brooch which looks to be in the form of a bow and a long securing pin. The photograph was taken by Muller Portrait Co., 4 Silver Street, Halifax.

DSCF6092 lady cropped 20170417_102406

The photographs of the soldiers seem to be taken in various places including Talbot Studios (T H Louden) 61 Talbot Road, Blackpool; Swift Studios in either Plymouth of Exeter; Modern Studios, 11 Boar Lane, Leeds; Pictorial Studios, The Esplanade, Redcar; T  E Cox, Ripon and a couple in Bombay that look like pictures taken by fellow soldiers.

A few of the photographs have names on the back, as if sent with a letter, while others are blank.

Who to start off with?  The man at the top.  A soldier with his cap at a jaunty angle and no signes of a regiment apart from a cap badge.  On the reverse are the words ‘Plows Histon 170 Street (?)’.

Eric on the left and Mr Plows on right

Eric on the left and Mr Plows on right

Next is a man who writes on the reverse of his image ‘To Forrie and Harold with love from Eric’. At least we know this young mans name!

Following on is a man serving in the RAF and written on the reverse is ‘Mr Plows’ – could he  be a relative of the soldier at Histon?

Florrie and Harold must have been well known and liked in the area as the photographs from Bombay are for them and they received two photographs within a month.  ‘To Florrie and

Raymond, Bombay 1945

Raymond, Bombay 1945

Raymond, Bombay 1945.

Raymond, Bombay 1945.

Harold from Raymond xxxxxx, Bombay Aug 45′ and then ‘ To Florrie and Harold from Raymond xxxxx Bombay 15th Sept 45’.  What connection had Florrie and Harold to Raymond and our first young man? On close inspection of the coloured photograph, it looks like it is hand coloured as his cap badge on the left clearly shows it should not be red and the pink/red colouring runs in two places onto the white border.

The following pictures have no names or clues except the group image was taken by a photographer from Ripon. Do you know who these men are, if you do, let me know!

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10 WW1 things to do in Northern France and Belgium

10 WW1 things to do in Northern France and Belgium

1 Toc H and the Shot at Dawn Post – Poperinghe

2 Lijssenthoek CWGC Cemetery and Visitor Center

3 The Blochaus de Eperleques

4 Tyne Cot CWGC and Visitor Center

5 Langermark German Cemetery

6 In Flanders Field Museum

7 Vimy Ridge and Visitor Center

8 Le Carriere eWellington

9 Passchendale Museum

10 Victoria Cross: The Heroes’ Trail

Before you visit – check for opening times, entrance charges, facilities and access.

If you are going to look for a specific soldier or place, do a little bit of research before you go, it will be worth the pre-planning.

1911 census occupation codes

1911 census occupation codes

Every wondered what the numbers refer to at the side of occupations when using the 1911 census?

Look no further but a full list of codes and much more can be found here

Code number – occupation(s)

000 Schoolmasters, Teachers, Professors, Lecturers – In Schools &c under Local Authorities

010 Other Domestic Indoor Servants

020 Charwomen

030 Laundry Workers

040 Washers, Ironers, Manglers &c (not in Laundries)

050 Commercial or Business Clerks

060 Coachmen (not Domestic); Cabmen

061 Horsekeepers, Grooms, Stablemen (not Domestic)

070 Carmen, Carriers, Carters, Wagoners (not Farm)

080 Dock Labourers, Wharf Labourers

090 Messengers, Porters, Watchmen (not Railway or Government)

100 Farmers, Graziers

110 Farmers, Graziers – Sons, Daughters or other relatives assisting in the work of the farm

120 Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants – Distinguished as in charge of Cattle

130 Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants – Distinguished as in charge of Horses

140 Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants – Not otherwise distinguished

150 Coal and Shale Mine – Workers at the Face

160 Coal and Shale Mine – Other workers below ground

170 Coal and Shale Mine – Workers above ground

172 Coal and Shale Mine – Other Mine Service

180 Ironfounders Moulders, Core Makers

181 Ironfounders Foundry Labourers

182 Ironfounders Fettlers

183 Ironfounders Cupola, Oven – Men

184 Ironfounders others

190 Blacksmiths, Strikers

200 Erectors, Fitters, Turners

201 Erectors, Fitters, Turners – Labourers

210 Carpenters, Joiners

211 Carpenters, Joiners – Labourers

220 Bricklayers

230 Bricklayers Labourers

240 Painters, Decorators

250 Weaving Processes

260 Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers

270 Tailors

280 Dressmakers

290 Shirt Makers; Seamstresses

300 Boot, Shoe – Makers

310 Butchers, Meat Salesmen

320 Grocers; Tea, Coffee, Chocolate – Dealers

330 General Labourers

340 Engine – Drivers, Stokers, Firemen (not Railway, Marine, or Agricultural)

350 Retired from Business (not Army or Navy)

360 Pensioners

361 Old Age Pensioners (Occupation or former Occupation not stated)

370 Private Means

380 Students

390 Scholars

401 Post Office – Telegraphists, Telephone Operators

402 Other Post Office Officers and Clerks

403 Postmen

404 Post Office Messengers &c

405 Other Civil Service Officers and Clerks

406 Other Civil Service Messengers &c

407 Police

408 Poor Law Service

409 Municipal, Parish, and other Local or County Offices

411 Army Officers (Effective)

412 Army Officers (Retired)

413 Soldiers and Non-Commissioned Officers

414 Officers of the Navy(Effective)

415 Officers of the Navy(Retired)

416 Men of the Navy

417 Officers of the Marines (Effective)

418 Officers of the Marines (Retired)

419 Men of the Marines

421 Clergymen (Established Church)

422 Roman Catholic Priests

423 Ministers, Priests, of other Religious Bodies

424 City Missionaries, Scripture Readers, Itinerant Preachers

425 Monks, Nuns, Sisters of Charity

426 Church, Chapel, Cemetery – Officers &c

427 Barristers

428 Solicitors

429 Law Clerks

431 Physicians, Surgeons, Registered Practitioners

432 Dentists (including Assistants)

433 Veterinary Surgeons

434 Midwives

435 Sick Nurses, Invalid Attendants – in Institutions of Local Authorities

436 Sick Nurses, Invalid Attendants – in other Institutions

437 Sick Nurses, Invalid Attendants – other

438 Subordinate Medical Service

441 Schoolmasters, Teachers, Professors, Lecturers – In other Schools &c

442 Schoolmasters, Teachers, Professors, Lecturers – Private

443 Schoolmasters, Teachers, Professors, Lecturers – Undefined

444 Others connected with Education under Local Authorities

445 Others connected with Education, Schools &c

451 Authors, Editors, Journalists, Reporters

452 Persons engaged in Scientific Pursuits

453 Others Connected with Literature &c – under Local Authorities

454 Others connected with Literature &c – other

456 Civil, Mining – Engineers

457 Land, House, Ship – Surveyors

458 Professional Engineers, Professional Surveyors – Assistants

461 Painters, Sculptors, Artists

462 Architects

463 Engravers

464 Photographers

465 Musicians, Music Masters, Singers

466 Actors

467 Art, Music, Theatre – Service &c

469 Performers, Showmen; Exhibition, Games – Service

471 Domestic, Indoor Servants – Hotel, Lodging House, Eating House

475 Day Girls, Day Servants (so returned)

476 Domestic – Coachmen, Grooms

477 Domestic – Motor Car Drivers, Motor Car Attendants

478 Domestic Gardeners

479 Gamekeepers

481 College, Club – Service

482 Hospital, Institution, Benevolent Society – Service under Local Authorities (not Poor Law)

483 Hospital, Institution, Benevolent Society – Service Other

484 Park, Lodge, Gate &c – Keepers (not Government)

485 Caretakers, Office Keepers (not Government)

486 Cooks (not Domestic)

487 Bath and Wash-house Service – Under Local Authorities

488 Bath and Wash-house Service – Other

489 Others engaged in Service

491 Merchants (commodity undefined)

492 Brokers, Agents, Factors

493 Salesmen, Buyers (not otherwise described)

494 Commercial Travellers

495 Accountants

496 Auctioneers, Appraisers, Valuers, House Agents

497 Officers of Commercial Guilds, Societies &c

501 Bankers; Bank – Officials, Clerks

502 Bill – Discounters, Brokers; Finance Agents

505 Life, House, Ship &c Insurance – Officials, Clerks &c

506 Insurance Agents

510 Railway – Officials, Clerks

511 Railway Ticket – Examiners, Collectors, Checkers

512 Railway Engine – Drivers, Stokers, Cleaners

513 Railway Guards

514 Signalmen

515 Pointsmen, Level Crossing Men

516 Platelayers, Gangers, Packers

517 Railway Labourers (not Railway Contractors Labourers)

518 Railway Porters

519 Other Railway Servants

521 Livery Stable Keepers; Coach, Cab – Proprietors

522 Motor Garage – Proprietors, Workers

523 Motor Car Drivers (not Domestic); Motor Cab Drivers

524 Motor Van &c Drivers

525 Motor Van &c Guards, Boys

526 Others Connected with Carrying or Cartage

527 Omnibus Service – Horse Drivers

528 Omnibus Service – Motor Drivers

529 Omnibus Service – Conductors

530 Omnibus Service – Others

531 Local Authority Tramway Service – Drivers

532 Local Authority Tramway Service – Conductors

533 Local Authority Tramway Service – Others

534 Other Tramway Service – Drivers

535 Other Tramway Service – Conductors

536 Other Tramway Service – Others

537 Others on Roads

541 Merchant Service; Seamen – Navigating Department

542 Merchant Service; Seamen – Engineering Department

543 Merchant Service; Seamen – Cooks, Stewards, & others (Subsidiary Services)

544 Pilots; Boatmen on Seas

545 Bargemen, Lightermen, Watermen

546 Navigation Service (on Shore) – Railway Company

547 Navigation Service (on Shore) – Other

551 Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse – Officials & Servants – Government

552 Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse – Officials & Servants – Local Authority

553 Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse – Officials & Servants – Railway Company

554 Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse – Officials & Servants – Other

556 Warehousemen

557 Coalheavers; Coal – Porters, Labourers

558 Telegraph, Telephone – Service (not Government)

561 Farm – Bailiffs, Foremen

562 Shepherds

563 Woodmen

564 Nurserymen, Seedsmen, Florists

565 Market Gardeners (including Labourers)

566 Other Gardeners (not Domestic)

567 Agricultural Machine – Proprietors, Attendants

568 Others engaged in or connected with Agriculture

571 Fishermen

581 Coke Burners

582 Patent Fuel Manufacture

583 Iron – Miners, Quarriers

584 Copper Miners

585 Tin Miners

586 Lead Miners

587 Miners in other Minerals

588 Mettalliferous Mine – Owners, General Managers, Captains

589 Mettalliferous Mine – Other Mine Service

590 Stone, Slate &c Mine or Quarry Owners, Agents, Managers

591 Stone – Miners, Quarriers

592 Stone – Cutters, Dressers

593 Slate – Miners, Quarriers

594 Slate Workers

595 Limeburners

596 Clay, Sand, Gravel, Chalk – Pit &c Workers

597 Other Workers in Products of Quarries

598 Coal, Coke – Merchants, Dealers

599 Dealers in Stone, Slate &c

601 Pig Iron manufacture (Blast Furnaces)

602 Puddling Furnaces; Iron and Steel Rolling Mills

603 Tube Manufacture

604 Steel – Manufacture, Smelting, Founding

610 Galvanized Sheet Manufacture

611 Tinplate Manufacture

612 Copper Manufacture

613 Lead Manufacture

614 Zinc Manufacture

615 Brass, Bronze – Manufacture

616 Manufacture of other or unspecified Metals

620 Patternmakers

621 Millwrights

622 Brassfounders

623 Brass Finishers

624 Coppersmiths

625 Metal Machinist

626 Labourers (undefined) in Engineering Works

627 Boiler Makers

628 Other or undefined Workers In Engine and Machine Making – In Textile Machinery Fittings &c

629 Other or undefined Workers In Engine and Machine Making – Others

633 Electrical Cable Manufacture

634 Electric Lamp Manufacture

635 Other Electrical Apparatus Makers; Electrical Fitters – Government

636 Other Electrical Apparatus Makers; Electrical Fitters – Other

637 Electricians (undefined)

644 Tool Makers

645 File Makers

646 Saw Makers

647 Cutlers; Scissors Makers

648 Needle, Pin – Makers

649 Steel Pen Makers

650 Roller Engravers, Block Cutters (for Text &c Printing)

651 Type – Cutters, Founders

652 Die, Seal, Coin, Medal – Makers

653 Gunsmiths, Gun Manufacturers – Government

654 Gunsmiths, Gun Manufacturers – Other

655 Sword, Bayonet – Makers, Cutlers

661 Nail Manufacture

662 Bolt, Nut, Rivet, Screw, Staple – Makers

663 Anchor, Chain – Manufacture

664 Stove, Grate, Range, Fire Iron – Makers

665 Bedstead Makers (Iron or Brass)

666 Wire – Drawers, Makers, Workers, Weavers

667 Lock, Key – Makers

668 Gas Fittings Makers

669 Lamp, Lantern, Candlestick – Makers

671 White Metal, Plated – Ware Manufacturers; Pewterers

672 Tinplate Goods Makers

673 Copper Workers

674 Leaden Goods Makers

675 Zinc Workers

676 Brass, Bronze – Workers

677 Other Iron Goods Makers

678 Iron Workers (undefined)

679 Other Metal Workers

680 Ship Painters

681 Ship – Platers, Rivetters &c

682 Ship – Other Workers in Iron

683 Shipwrights

684 Ship – Other Workers in Wood

685 Shipyard Labourers (undefined)

686 Others in Ship and Boat Building

691 Railway – Coach, Wagon Makers – Railway Company Workers

692 Railway – Coach, Wagon Makers – Others

693 Tram Car Makers

694 Cycle Makers

695 Motor Car Chassis Makers

696 Motor Car Body Makers

697 Coach, Carriage – Makers

698 Wheelwrights

699 Others in Construction of Vehicles

701 Iron Mongers; Hardware – Dealers, Merchants

702 Other Dealers in Metals, Machines &c

711 Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, Jewellers

712 Lapidaries and other Workers

713 Watchmakers, Clockmakers

714 Scientific Instrument Makers; Opticians

715 Photographic Apparatus Makers

716 Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Makers

717 Surgical & Dental Instrument & Apparatus Makers

721 Piano, Organ – Makers

722 Other Musical Instrument Makers

723 Fishing Tackle, Toy, Game Apparatus – Makers

726 Dealers in Precious Metals, Jewellery, & Watches

727 Dealers in Instruments, Toys &c

730 Architectural, Monumental – Carvers, Sculptors

731 Builders

732 Builders Labourers

733 Masons

734 Masons Labourers

735 Slaters, Tilers

736 Plasterers

737 Plasterers Labourers

738 Paperhangers, Whitewashers

739 Monumental Masons

740 Glaziers

741 Plumbers

742 Gasfitters

743 Locksmiths, Bellhangers

744 Railway, Canal, Harbour &c – Contractors

745 Navvies; Railway &c Contractors Labourers

746 Well, Mine – Sinkers, Borers

747 Road – Contractors, Surveyors, Inspectors

748 Paviours, Road Labourers – Under Local Authorities

749 Paviours, Road Labourers – Others

751 Cabinet Makers

752 French Polishers

753 Upholsterers

754 House and Shop Fittings Makers

755 Undertakers; Funeral Furniture Makers

756 Wood Carvers; Carvers and Gilders

757 Willow, Cane, Rush – Workers; Basket Makers

758 Dealers in Works of Art

759 Furniture &c Dealers

761 Sawyers; Wood Cutting Machinists

762 Lath, Wooden Fence, Hurdle – Makers

763 Wood Turners

764 Wooden Box, Packing Case – Makers

765 Coopers; Hoop – Makers, Benders

766 Cork, Bark – Cutters, Workers

767 Other Workers in Wood

768 Timber, Wood, Cork, Bark – Merchants, Dealers

771 Brick, Plain Tile, Terra-Cotta – Makers

772 Plaster, Cement – Manufacture

773 Earthenware, China, Porcelain – Manufacture

774 Sheet, Plate – Glass Manufacture

775 Glass Bottle Manufacture

776 Other Workers in Glass Manufacture

777 Brick, Cement – Dealers

778 Earthenware, China, Glass – Dealers

780 Dye, Paint, Ink, Blacking – Manufacture

781 Gunpowder, Guncotton, Explosive Substance – Manufacture – Government

782 Gunpowder, Guncotton, Explosive Substance – Manufacture – Other

783 Cartridge, Fireworks, Explosive Article – Manufacture – Government

784 Cartridge, Fireworks, Explosive Article – Manufacture – Other

785 Lucifer Match Manufacture

786 Salt Makers

787 Manufacturing Chemists

788 Alkali Manufacture

789 Chemists, Druggists

791 Oil – Millers, Refiners; Oil Cake Makers

792 Candle, Grease – Manufacture

793 Soap – Boilers, Makers

794 Manure Manufacture

795 India Rubber, Gutta Percha – Workers

796 Waterproof Goods Makers

797 Glue, Size, Varnish &c – Makers

798 Oil and Colourmen

799 Other Dealers of Order 15

801 Furriers, Skinners

802 Tanners

803 Curriers

804 Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c Makers

805 Saddlers; Harness, Whip – Makers

807 Brush, Broom – Makers; Hair, Bristle – Workers

808 Quill, Feather – Dressers

809 Dealers in Skins, Leather, Hair, and Feathers

810 Paper Manufacture – Rag &c – Cutting, Dusting, Sorting

811 Paper Manufacture – Other processes

812 Paper Stainers

813 Stationery Manufacture

814 Envelope Makers

815 Paper Bag Makers

816 Cardboard Box Makers

817 Other workers in Paper &c

818 Stationers, Law Stationers

819 Other Dealers in Paper

820 Printers – Hand Compositors

821 Printers – Machine Compositors

822 Printers – Printing Machine Minders

823 Printers – Stereotypers, Electrotypers

824 Printers – Others in Printing

825 Lithographers; Copper & Steel Plate Printers

826 Bookbinders

827 Book, Print – Publishers, Sellers

828 Newspaper Publishers

829 Newspaper Agents, News Room Keepers

830 Cotton – Card and Blowing Room Processes – Strippers and Grinders

831 Cotton – Card and Blowing Room Processes – Others

832 Cotton – Spinning Processes

833 Cotton – Winding, Warping &c Processes

834 Cotton – Workers in other Processes

835 Cotton – Workers undefined

836 Cotton – Fustian Cutting

841 Wool – Sorting Processes

842 Wool – Carding and Combing Processes

843 Wool and Worsted – Spinning Processes

844 Wool and Worsted – Weaving Processes

845 Wool and Worsted – Workers in other processes

846 Wool and Worsted – Workers undefined

851 Silk – Spinning Processes

852 Silk – Weaving Processes

853 Silk – Workers in other processes

854 Silk – Workers undefined

861 Flax, Linen – Manufacture

862 Hemp Manufacture

863 Jute Manufacture

864 Cocoa Fibre Manufacture

865 Rope, Twine, Cord – Makers

866 Mat Makers

867 Canvas, Sailcloth, Sacking, Net &c – Manufacture

870 Thread Manufacture

871 Hosiery Manufacture

872 Lace Manufacture

873 Elastic Web Manufacture

874 Carpet, Rug, Felt – Manufacture

875 Smallware Manufacture

876 Fancy Goods (Textile) &c Manufacture

877 Weavers of Sundry Fabrics and undefined

878 Others Workers in Sundry Fabrics and undefined

879 Factory Hand (Textile) Undefined

881 Textile Bleachers

882 Textile Printers

883 Textile Dyers

884 Textile – Calenderers, Finishers &c

886 Other Dealers in Textile Fabrics

890 Straw Plait Manufacture

891 Straw Hat, Straw Bonnet – Manufacture

892 Felt Hat Manufacture

893 Makers of Cloth Hats and Caps

894 Makers of other Hats and Caps

895 Milliners

896 Hat, Bonnet, Straw Plait &c – Dealers

897 Clothiers, Outfitters – Dealers

898 Stay, Corset – Makers

899 Button Makers

900 Glove Makers

901 Hosiers, Haberdashers

902 Slipper Makers

903 Patten, Clog – Makers

904 Boot, Shoe, Patten, Clog – Dealers

905 Artificial Flower Makers

906 Wig Makers; Hairdressers

907 Umbrella, Parasol, Stick – Makers

908 Other Workers in Dress

909 Other Dealers in Dress

915 Creamery Workers

916 Milksellers, Dairymen

917 Provision Curers

918 Cheesemongers, Buttermen, Provision Dealers

919 Slaughterers

921 Fish Curers

922 Fishmongers, Poulterers, Game Dealers

923 Millers; Cereal Food Manufacture

924 Corn, Flour, Seed – Merchants, Dealers

925 Bread, Biscuit, Cake &c – Makers

926 Bakers, Confectioners (Dealers)

927 Sugar Refiners

928 Jam, Preserve, Sweet – Makers

929 Chocolate, Cocoa – Makers

931 Greengrocers, Fruiterers

932 Ginger Beer, Mineral Water – Manufacture

933 Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle &c – Makers

934 Other Dealers in Food

935 Tobacco Manufacture

936 Tobacconists

937 Maltsters

938 Brewers

939 Distillers; Spirit Manufacture

941 Coffee House, Eating House – Keepers

942 Lodging House, Boarding House – Keepers

943 Inn, Hotel – Keepers; Publicans, Beersellers, Cider Dealers

944 Beer Bottlers

945 Cellarmen

946 Barmen

947 Waiters (not Domestic)

948 Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating House – Service

949 Wine and Spirit – Merchants, Agents

950 Local Authority Gas Works Service – Gas Makers

951 Local Authority Gas Works Service – Others

952 Other Gas Works Service – Gas Makers

953 Other Gas Works Service – Others

954 Local Authority Waterworks Service

955 Other Waterworks Service

956 Local Authority Electricity Supply – Generation and Distribution

957 Local Authority Electricity Supply – Others

958 Other Electricity Supply – Generation and Distribution

959 Other Electricity Supply – Others

961 Local Authority Drainage and Sanitary Service

962 Other Drainage and Sanitary Service

963 Local Authority Scavenging and Disposal of Refuse

964 Other Scavenging and Disposal of Refuse

970 Circular, Envelope – Addressers &c

971 Advertising, Bill Posting – Agents

972 Bill Posters

973 Sandwichmen, Bill Distributors

974 Cattle, Sheep, Pig – Dealers, Salesmen

975 Drovers, Lairmen

976 Dog, Bird, Animal – Keepers, Dealers

977 Knackers; Catsmeat Dealers

980 Celluloid – Makers, Workers

981 Tobacco Pipe, Snuff-box &c – Makers

982 Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoiseshell – Workers

983 Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth – Manufacture

984 Japanners

985 Chimney Sweeps

986 Rag – Gatherers, Dealers

987 Other Workers in Sundry Industries

988 Other Dealers in Sundry Industries

989 Receiving Shop, Receiving Office – Keeper, Assistant (Laundry: Dyers and Cleaners)

990 Multiple Shop, Multiple Store – Proprietor, Worker (general or undefined)

991 General or Unclassified Shopkeepers, General Dealers

992 Pawnbrokers

993 Costermongers, Hawkers, Street Sellers

994 Contractors, Manufacturers, Managers, Superintendants (undefined)

995 News – Boy, Vendor (street or undefined)

996 Artizans, Mechanics, Apprentices (undefined)

997 Factory – Hands, Labourers (undefined)

998 Machinists, Machine Workers (undefined)